Sunday, May 24, 2020

Teens Choose to Become Pregnant

Adult women old enough to have teenagers dont get it, but their teenage daughters do. Teen pregnancy has evolved from a shameful situation to a symbol of status in many high schools in the US, and moms of teenage daughters have seen this happen in their lifetimes. The June 2008 allegation that a teenage pregnancy pact may have existed at Gloucester High School in Massachusetts, resulting in 17 pregnancies in a school of 1200 students, rocked a town that counts among its residents a large Catholic population. The previous year, the school had only 4 student pregnancies in comparison. Of the girls who were pregnant at the time, none were older than 16. TIME magazine, which broke the story on their website on June 18, 2008, reported: School officials started looking into the matter as early as October after an unusual number of girls began filing into the school clinic to find out if they were pregnant. By May, several students had returned multiple times to get pregnancy tests, and on hearing the results, some girls seemed more upset when they werent pregnant than when they were, Sullivan says. All it took was a few simple questions before nearly half the expecting students, none older than 16, confessed to making a pact to get pregnant and raise their babies together. Then the story got worse. We found out one of the fathers is a 24-year-old homeless guy, the principal says, shaking his head. Teenage pregnancy is only part of the issue. Another more complicated aspect touches on legal and criminal issues - statutory rape and Romeo and Juliet laws. Engaging in sex with anyone under the age of 16 is a crime in Massachusetts. And as a June 2008 Reuters story revealed, a handful of the fathers are adults: ...[L]ocal officials said at least some of the men involved in the pregnancies were in their mid-20s, including one man who appeared to be homeless. Others were boys in the school.Carolyn Kirk, mayor of the port city 30 miles northeast of Boston, said authorities are looking at whether to pursue statutory rape charges. Were at the very early stages of wrestling with the complexities of this problem, she said. But we also have to think about the boys. Some of these boys could have their lives changed. They could be in serious, serious trouble even if it was consensual because of their age -- not from what the city could do but from what the girls families could do, she told Reuters. And the teen pregnancies at Gloucester High School raise yet another hot-button topic; the idea of schools providing contraception. The Reuters article indicated that during the course of the school year, Gloucester High administered 150 pregnancy tests to students but, in a phone interview with Greg Verga, chairman of the Gloucester School Committee, discovered that the administration resisted efforts to prevent pregnancy: The school forbids the distribution of condoms and other contraception without parental consent -- a rule that prompted the schools doctor and nurse to resign in protest in May.But even if we had contraceptives, that pact shows that if they wanted to get pregnant, they will get pregnant. Whether we distribute contraceptives is irrelevant, said Verga . As parents agonized over what had happened in their town to their teenage daughters and were puzzled by a large number of pregnant girls, others understood why what was once a shunned condition now seems glamorous. Part of it may have to do with teen pregnancy films such as, which some have said glosses over the very real problems teenage moms face in favor of a hip Hollywood version of life as a baby mama. And part of it is rooted in the socialization of young girls and teens. Books, films and music bombard teens with the message that being loved are what really matters. For teens unsure about themselves and their relationships, the desire for some form of unconditional love leads many to think motherhood will satisfy that longing. As the TIME article observed: Amanda Ireland, who graduated from Gloucester High on June 8, thinks she knows why these girls wanted to get pregnant. Ireland, 18, gave birth her freshman year and says some of her now pregnant schoolmates regularly approached her in the hall, remarking how lucky she was to have a baby. Theyre so excited to finally have someone to love them unconditionally, Ireland says. I try to explain its hard to feel loved when an infant is screaming to be fed at 3 a.m. Sources Kingsbury, Kathleen. Pregnancy Boom at Gloucester High.TIME.com, 18 June 2008.Szep, Jason. Teen pregnancy pact shocks Massachusetts city. Reuters.com, 19 June 2008.

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

Icebreaker Games for the First Day of Drama Class

At the beginning of each semester, every drama teacher is faced with a difficult challenge: How does one get 23 complete strangers to quickly become friends and colleagues? Icebreakers help students (and teachers!) learn names, project voices, and express themselves. Each one of the activities listed below provides an experience that is both entertaining and productive. The games may be simple enough for elementary students, but teens will have just as much fun. There are many variations of these activities, but the first and foremost step is to form a circle so that all of the participants can clearly see one another. Name Game This is an ideal first-day activity. Each person announces his or her name while stepping forward and striking a pose that reflects their personality. For example, Emily might hop out, angle her arms like an Egyptian hieroglyphic, and joyously shout, â€Å"Emily!† Then, everyone else jumps forward and repeats her name, copying Emily’s voice and movement. Afterward, the circle returns to normal, and then it’s on to the next person. It’s an engaging, energizing way for everyone to introduce themselves. Worlds Greatest Sandwich In this fun memory game, the goal is to create a massive imaginary sandwich. One person begins by saying his or her name and then states an ingredient to go in the sandwich. For example: My name is Kevin, and the worlds greatest sandwich has pickles. The next person in the circle announces their name and says Kevins ingredient as well as their own: Hi, my name is Sarah, and the worlds greatest sandwich has pickles and popcorn. If the instructor chooses, everyone can chant along as the sandwich grows. The ingredients often get wild; you could end up with a pickle-popcorn-meatball-chocolate-syrup-grass-eyeball-lettuce-pixie-dust sandwich. Finally, have the kids pantomime taking a bite. In addition to building memorization skills, this activity uses ridiculous humor to break the ice. Whoozit For this game, one person is chosen to be the â€Å"Seeker.† After that person leaves the room, another is chosen to be the â€Å"Whoozit.† This player makes constant rhythmic motions that change every 20 seconds or so. For example, first, the Whoozit might clap hands, then snap fingers, then pat their head. The other circle members discretely follow along. Then the Seeker enters, hoping to figure out which student is the Whoozit. Standing in the middle of the circle, he or she gets three guesses while the Whoozit tries their best to switch actions without being noticed. By giving the students a common goal, this team helps to ignite a sense of camaraderie among the group. Rhyme Time In this fast-paced game, the instructor stands in the center of the circle. He or she names a setting and a situation and then points to one of the students at random. Using improvisation skills, the student begins telling a story with a single sentence. For example: â€Å"I just found out I have a long-lost twin.† The instructor then points to a new speaker who must continue the story and create a rhyme: â€Å"I guess Mom tossed a coin and my bro didn’t win.† To prevent it from becoming too challenging, treat the rhymes as couplets, meaning that the students are only tasked with creating two rhymed lines at a time—the next chosen player creates a new line of the story with a new sound. The improvised tale goes on until a student fails to produce a rhyme. Then he or she sits in the middle of the circle and the group starts a new story. This goes on until the circle shrinks down to one or two champions. Instructors should make certain to increase the speed as the game progresses. This fun activity is sure to bring lots of laughs as students create an absurd story when put on the spot.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Eight Stages In the Development of Man Free Essays

Aging in the middle ages is certain that life has meaning and it is clear what life really is, it assigned to humans as highly important compare to all living things. The life span on earth is only diminutive interval, as we stay on earth the soul temporary become a prison of the body, the human body experience a short trial and test meant to end death. The important aspect is the life after death of the body, the existence of human being is not focused on what was gained in this material world, what life can offer, but reserves the immortal soul from death and ceaseless death and torture, by gaining endless life and everlasting happiness. We will write a custom essay sample on Eight Stages In the Development of Man or any similar topic only for you Order Now In the development of man in a chronological way there are eight stages infancy (0-2years), early childhood (age 2-6), middle childhood (6-12 years), adolescence (12-18 years), early adulthood (18-40), middle adulthood (40-60), the irregular sounding early late adulthood (60-75) and late adulthood (75+).   In childhood development, children develop rapidly as they are exposed to different attitudes and behaviors. They learn many things formally and informally, these experiences contribute to their emotional, intellectual, physical and social development. Adolescence has traditionally been viewed to begin with puberty, a sudden spurt in physical growth accompanied by sexual maturity. There is a common image of adolescents as unpredictable creatures, prone to mood swing and wild emotional outbursts. This shows that adolescents are more emotionally volatile than adults. In adulthood the individuals grow older they confront new combinations of biological drives and societal demands. By forty years old, most people are all too aware of the changes occurring within their bodies. Strength and vigor in various organ systems decline and changes are readily visible in body shapes and skin as bulges and wrinkles gradually replace gradually replace the sleek torsos and smooth exterior of youth. Sexual activity tends to decrease for both sexes and women in their late forties or early fifties experience pause. Physical changes are inevitable during mid-life, but the magnitude and the rate of such changes are strongly influenced by the the individual lifestyle. Growing evidence suggests that such factors as physical exercise, personal nutrition and effective management of stress may be better predictors of physical vigor and health than age. Comparative research has been made choosing animal models for research in aging, examination of animals is made so that the importance and suitability of particular genus for studies on aging. They use animal model on research for aging because it is a living life form on which a normative natural or behavioral characteristic of aging can be studied. It a semantic confusion when we hear the term research on aging, so we must characterize the areas of scientific analysis on aging. There are two wide categories to do research – the biology of aging or pathology of aging. When we refer to the biology of aging it is commonly based on the origin that aging and are normal processes, a fraction of physiological range in which aging is a step in the progress of the normal life span. Whereas, the pathology of aging is based on the basis that aging is a disease. To define aging more precisely, research should give more focus on genetic inclination from birth to old age, which may require the evaluation of very young  subjects to typify its growth and eventual appearance in the aged. The occurrence of  disease, exposure to environmental pollutants, and infectious agents that affect the elderly  that manifest only at their old age. The most important goals of biomedical and  behavioral research on aging is to develop the worth of life for the aged, to have a direct  development of efficient health concern services for the aged. There are two kinds of aging, primary aging and secondary aging. Primary aging  refers to changes produced by increasing age. Secondary aging can be traced to changes  resulting from disease, disuse, or abuse of our bodies. It is incorrect to attribute ill health  and discomfort to simply the negative effects of old age. Factors such as lifestyle and  specific illnesses, which are not age related, should be considered as possible causes. Indeed, our physical state during later life is more under our control. Such psychological ideas came from Greek and Roman thought. There is a concealed measurement of ancient philosophy that appeal to a theory divine transcendence ultimately triumphed in form of religion. Both prehistoric and medieval civilizations took for granted that the thoughtful means of life represented the utmost opportunity of human subsistence. This reality is essential to understand the contemporary apprehension of old age, which is a horror of the vacuum, the indeterminate state of apathy. The attitudes that the Greek holds do not necessarily replicate the realism of other  people’s lives. Even healthier individuals have a pessimistic outlook towards aging thus,  influence the perception of younger people to the ways they choose to interact with the  elderly. There are two conflicting traditions of thought that propose our ideas and  attitudes about aging, the traditional Greek view of aging is very negative, because the  Greeks strained the enormous luck and the great hardship of the old. In their own  view if a person has already conceded his/her youthful years, it is better to die than  experience the indignities of aging. On the other hand the medieval attitudes towards  aging is very positive, since they believe that as a a person grows older, it brings position  and prestige to him and his family and also the community where he lives. This  discrepancy among the contrasting civilization is best seen in the reasons specified for the  death of a young person. In the Middle Eastern view is that the bad man dies young whereas, an old age is  a sanction which means when a person dies young he is not blessed, in contrast to ancient  Greek which believes that a man who dies at an early age is loved by the Gods and a individual who lives into old age is being punished by the Gods. The attitudes that the Greek holds do not necessarily replicate the realism of other people’s lives. Even healthier individuals have a pessimistic outlook towards aging thus; influence the perception of younger people to the ways they choose to interact with the elderly. There are two conflicting traditions of thought that propose our ideas and  attitudes about aging, the traditional Greek view of aging is very negative, because the Greeks strained the enormous luck and the great hardship of the old. In their own  view if a person has already conceded his/her youthful years, it is better to die than  experience the indignities of aging. On the other hand the medieval attitudes towards  aging is very positive, since they believe that as a   person grows older, it brings position  and prestige to him and his family and also the community where he lives. This  discrepancy among the contrasting civilization is best seen in the reasons specified for the  death of a young person. In the Middle Eastern view is that the bad man dies young whereas, an old age is  a sanction which means when a person dies young he is not blessed, in contrast to ancient  Greek which believes that a man who dies at an early age is loved by the Gods and a  individual who lives into old age is being punished by the Gods. Deprived wellbeing in aging requires increased beneficial expenditures that transmit income from other essential areas such as home preservation or the purchase of food. There should be a concerned social or physical environment may retard the rate of functional loss to some degree. Successful planning for an aging society obviously requires attention to the qualitative aspects of aging as well as to the quantitative features. Such factors mostly define the value of life at any age and include not only health status but also monetary standing and aspects of both social and substantial environment. There are large numbers of changes in the ways aging people experience in their environments, during the years of adulthood and into old age. These changes engross the course of sensation and perception. We define sensation as the transmission of the sights, sounds, smells, tastes, and feel of the internal and outside environments, into terms that the brain can use to interpret these signals. In contrast, the term perception is the procedure that happens in the brain as it integrates these signals with the person’s past comprehension and information coming from the different experiences. The aging process affects both sensation and perception in the tangential and central mechanism of the nervous system. Lots of information is available which are responsible on the aging of the structures for sensation compare on the aging of upper level brain centers concerned in perception. There are deep effects on adjustment of the many age correlated changes in the understanding of intellect information. In every day existence adults use sensory and perceptual processes, from ordinary routine interaction to difficult problem situations, and even on matters of life and death. Context is a common issue that may strengthen the usual cognitive problems of aging. The associated changes in the brain dopamine has influence how people process background information, which in turn can hurt concentration memory and more. The psychologist have establish the â€Å"absent link† between the aging brain and waning cognitive abilities, there are also studies that shows where the older people and younger people pathways in context processing. The slow lessening of the ability to gain and utilize background clues could clarify why aging people refuse cognition across a range of function. Psychologist develops complete, brain based representation of normal aging, that makes them able to eventually slow or stop these worrying cognitive decline. The best example is when psychologist uses dopamine to be used in context   Ã‚  processing which is a kind of psychological â€Å"operating system† that sits among the brain’s prefrontal cortex and cognition; they believe that definite sufficient levels of the chemical messenger dopamine, the prefrontal cortex consistently enables to course for a thought, memory of the actions. Therefore, context processing can have a wide impact, straddling cognitive process once thought to be autonomous. The context processing, has the capability to supersede a defaulting behavior to perform something in a contextually suitable way. To sum it up, in this process helps aging people to decide which way to go to the market, what to utter based on who is listening or what uncertain word would mean in a meticulous sentence. Health promotion has been a functional social science whose theoretical structure has developed from a psychology, anthropology and sociology foundation. Since 1970’s there are already programs given based on the theories of health promotions, usually implemented across large populations. It is also a mixture of health education and related managerial, political, and economic changes conductive to wellbeing. A health promotion program, then, is planned to improve the health and welfare of individuals and communities by giving the people with the information, expertise, services, and sustainability needed to take on and preserve optimistic lifestyle changes. Successful health promotion programs are health enhancement programs; they go further than providing information to effect behavioral alteration. It emphasize has been on physical health condition and health assurance, usual study of insurance price infer that the health promotion program could decrease morbidity from disease. Two types of learning programs for older drivers have been developed, the first one is precautionary driving approach to decrease fears and sharpen driving skills. The next program is for older citizens who had one or other accidents and uses a defensive-driving/traffic school approach to decrease threat of accident. Programs may be offered in a multiplicity of setting such as senior and district centers. The organization of support groups, conducting of meetings of people with meticulous emotional wants share and discuss the crisis the member faces. These groups can be organized by retirement homes, hospitals, senior centers, and community interest society.   Reassurance of telephone programs, it is the duty of a fit and self sufficient person to voluntary calls a homebound or apprehensive elder person each day at the same time to check on his protection and well being. Transportation programs, there are vans or minibuses that provide transport for older adults or the handicapped to physicians, hospital, clinics. Volunteer programs, any sort of organization that operates more efficiently and has increased sense of community importance if an efficient volunteer is developed and equipped. Program developments include advances in public wellbeing, preventive and curative medicine, health education, and medical technology have caused enormous changes in the configuration of the populace of aging populations. Conclusion Everyone of us started from being a child until we reach old age, as we grow older we become unique to other people, each of us has a different genetic make up. During the life course, the range of those persons is created by how person invested time and energy. The life time approach to the learning of aging is one way of conceptualizing many of the factors that influence how individual modify as they grow older, and how different personality show unlike patterns of change in aging. Work Cited Cockayne K. (2003). Experiencing Old Age in Ancient Rome. Sociology, Routlidge Publishing. Decalmer P. and Glandenning F. (1997) The Mistreatment of Elderly People. Sociology. Sage Publication. Sage Newbury Park, CA. Davies, J.K., Gordon M., editor (1998). Quality, Evidence, and Health Effectiveness in Health Promotion. Routledge Publishing. Gilford, D. M. (1988).The Aging Population In The Twenty-First Century. Contributor National Academy of Sciences. National Academic Press. Haber, D. (2007). Health Promotion of Aging; Practical Applications for Health Professionals. Fourth edition. Springer Publishing Company Timmreck, T.C. (2003).Planning Program Development and Evaluation. Jones and Barlett Publishers. Timiras, P.S., (2002) Physiological Basis of Aging And Geriatrics. Mac Millan Publishing. New York. Webb, R.C., (1999). Psychology of The Consumer And It’s Development .Kluwer Academic/ Plenum Publishers. New York. How to cite Eight Stages In the Development of Man, Essay examples Eight Stages In the Development of Man Free Essays Aging in the middle ages is certain that life has meaning and it is clear what life really is, it assigned to humans as highly important compare to all living things. The life span on earth is only diminutive interval, as we stay on earth the soul temporary become a prison of the body, the human body experience a short trial and test meant to end death. The important aspect is the life after death of the body, the existence of human being is not focused on what was gained in this material world, what life can offer, but reserves the immortal soul from death and ceaseless death and torture, by gaining endless life and everlasting happiness. We will write a custom essay sample on Eight Stages In the Development of Man or any similar topic only for you Order Now In the development of man in a chronological way there are eight stages infancy (0-2years), early childhood (age 2-6), middle childhood (6-12 years), adolescence (12-18 years), early adulthood (18-40), middle adulthood (40-60), the irregular sounding early late adulthood (60-75) and late adulthood (75+).   In childhood development, children develop rapidly as they are exposed to different attitudes and behaviors. They learn many things formally and informally, these experiences contribute to their emotional, intellectual, physical and social development. Adolescence has traditionally been viewed to begin with puberty, a sudden spurt in physical growth accompanied by sexual maturity. There is a common image of adolescents as unpredictable creatures, prone to mood swing and wild emotional outbursts. This shows that adolescents are more emotionally volatile than adults. In adulthood the individuals grow older they confront new combinations of biological drives and societal demands. By forty years old, most people are all too aware of the changes occurring within their bodies. Strength and vigor in various organ systems decline and changes are readily visible in body shapes and skin as bulges and wrinkles gradually replace gradually replace the sleek torsos and smooth exterior of youth. Sexual activity tends to decrease for both sexes and women in their late forties or early fifties experience pause. Physical changes are inevitable during mid-life, but the magnitude and the rate of such changes are strongly influenced by the the individual lifestyle. Growing evidence suggests that such factors as physical exercise, personal nutrition and effective management of stress may be better predictors of physical vigor and health than age. Comparative research has been made choosing animal models for research in aging, examination of animals is made so that the importance and suitability of particular genus for studies on aging. They use animal model on research for aging because it is a living life form on which a normative natural or behavioral characteristic of aging can be studied. It a semantic confusion when we hear the term research on aging, so we must characterize the areas of scientific analysis on aging. There are two wide categories to do research – the biology of aging or pathology of aging. When we refer to the biology of aging it is commonly based on the origin that aging and are normal processes, a fraction of physiological range in which aging is a step in the progress of the normal life span. Whereas, the pathology of aging is based on the basis that aging is a disease. To define aging more precisely, research should give more focus on genetic inclination from birth to old age, which may require the evaluation of very young  subjects to typify its growth and eventual appearance in the aged. The occurrence of  disease, exposure to environmental pollutants, and infectious agents that affect the elderly  that manifest only at their old age. The most important goals of biomedical and  behavioral research on aging is to develop the worth of life for the aged, to have a direct  development of efficient health concern services for the aged.  Ã‚  There are two kinds of aging, primary aging and secondary aging. Primary aging  refers to changes produced by increasing age. Secondary aging can be traced to changes  resulting from disease, disuse, or abuse of our bodies. It is incorrect to attribute ill health  and discomfort to simply the negative effects of old age. Factors such as lifestyle and  specific illnesses, which are not age related, should be considered as possible causes. Indeed, our physical state during later life is more under our control. Such psychological ideas came from Greek and Roman thought. There is a concealed measurement of ancient philosophy that appeal to a theory divine transcendence ultimately triumphed in form of religion. Both prehistoric and medieval civilizations took for granted that the thoughtful means of life represented the utmost opportunity of human subsistence. This reality is essential to understand the contemporary apprehension of old age, which is a horror of the vacuum, the indeterminate state of apathy. The attitudes that the Greek holds do not necessarily replicate the realism of other  people’s lives. Even healthier individuals have a pessimistic outlook towards aging thus,  influence the perception of younger people to the ways they choose to interact with the  elderly. There are two conflicting traditions of thought that propose our ideas and  attitudes about aging, the traditional Greek view of aging is very negative, because the  Greeks strained the enormous luck and the great hardship of the old. In their own  view if a person has already conceded his/her youthful years, it is better to die than  experience the indignities of aging. On the other hand the medieval attitudes towards  aging is very positive, since they believe that as a a person grows older, it brings position  and prestige to him and his family and also the community where he lives. This  discrepancy among the contrasting civilization is best seen in the reasons specified for the  death of a young person. In the Middle Eastern view is that the bad man dies young whereas, an old age is  a sanction which means when a person dies young he is not blessed, in contrast to ancient Greek which believes that a man who dies at an early age is loved by the Gods and a individual who lives into old age is being punished by the Gods. The attitudes that the Greek holds do not necessarily replicate the realism of other people’s lives. Even healthier individuals have a pessimistic outlook towards aging thus; influence the perception of younger people to the ways they choose to interact with the elderly. There are two conflicting traditions of thought that propose our ideas and attitudes about aging, the traditional Greek view of aging is very negative, because the Greeks strained the enormous luck and the great hardship of the old. In their own  view if a person has already conceded his/her youthful years, it is better to die than  experience the indignities of aging. On the other hand the medieval attitudes towards  aging is very positive, since they believe that as a   person grows older, it brings position  and prestige to him and his family and also the community where he lives. This  discrepancy among the contrasting civilization is best seen in the reasons specified for thedeath of a young person. In the Middle Eastern view is that the bad man dies young whereas, an old age is  a sanction which means when a person dies young he is not blessed, in contrast to ancient  Greek which believes that a man who dies at an early age is loved by the Gods and a  individual who lives into old age is being punished by the Gods. Deprived wellbeing in aging requires increased beneficial expenditures that transmit income from other essential areas such as home preservation or the purchase of food. There should be a concerned social or physical environment may retard the rate of functional loss to some degree. Successful planning for an aging society obviously requires attention to the qualitative aspects of aging as well as to the quantitative features. Such factors mostly define the value of life at any age and include not only health status but also monetary standing and aspects of both social and substantial environment. There are large numbers of changes in the ways aging people experience in their environments, during the years of adulthood and into old age. These changes engross the course of sensation and perception. We define sensation as the transmission of the sights, sounds, smells, tastes, and feel of the internal and outside environments, into terms that the brain can use to interpret these signals. In contrast, the term perception is the procedure that happens in the brain as it integrates these signals with the person’s past comprehension and information coming from the different experiences. The aging process affects both sensation and perception in the tangential and central mechanism of the nervous system. Lots of information is available which are responsible on the aging of the structures for sensation compare on the aging of upper level brain centers concerned in perception. There are deep effects on adjustment of the many age correlated changes in the understanding of intellect information. In every day existence adults use sensory and perceptual processes, from ordinary routine interaction to difficult problem situations, and even on matters of life and death. Context is a common issue that may strengthen the usual cognitive problems of aging. The associated changes in the brain dopamine has influence how people process background information, which in turn can hurt concentration memory and more. The psychologist have establish the â€Å"absent link† between the aging brain and waning cognitive abilities, there are also studies that shows where the older people and younger people pathways in context processing. The slow lessening of the ability to gain and utilize background clues could clarify why aging people refuse cognition across a range of function. Psychologist develops complete, brain based representation of normal aging, that makes them able to eventually slow or stop these worrying cognitive decline. The best example is when psychologist uses dopamine to be used in context   Ã‚  processing which is a kind of psychological â€Å"operating system† that sits among the brain’s prefrontal cortex and cognition; they believe that definite sufficient levels of the chemical messenger dopamine, the prefrontal cortex consistently enables to course for a thought, memory of the actions. Therefore, context processing can have a wide impact, straddling cognitive process once thought to be autonomous. The context processing, has the capability to supersede a defaulting behavior to perform something in a contextually suitable way. To sum it up, in this process helps aging people to decide which way to go to the market, what to utter based on who is listening or what uncertain word would mean in a meticulous sentence. Health promotion has been a functional social science whose theoretical structure has developed from a psychology, anthropology and sociology foundation. Since 1970’s there are already programs given based on the theories of health promotions, usually implemented across large populations. It is also a mixture of health education and related managerial, political, and economic changes conductive to wellbeing. A health promotion program, then, is planned to improve the health and welfare of individuals and communities by giving the people with the information, expertise, services, and sustainability needed to take on and preserve optimistic lifestyle changes. Successful health promotion programs are health enhancement programs; they go further than providing information to effect behavioral alteration. It emphasize has been on physical health condition and health assurance, usual study of insurance price infer that the health promotion program could decrease morbidity from disease. Two types of learning programs for older drivers have been developed, the first one is precautionary driving approach to decrease fears and sharpen driving skills. The next program is for older citizens who had one or other accidents and uses a defensive-driving/traffic school approach to decrease threat of accident. Programs may be offered in a multiplicity of setting such as senior and district centers. The organization of support groups, conducting of meetings of people with meticulous emotional wants share and discuss the crisis the member faces. These groups can be organized by retirement homes, hospitals, senior centers, and community interest society. Reassurance of telephone programs, it is the duty of a fit and self sufficient person to voluntary calls a homebound or apprehensive elder person each day at the same time to check on his protection and well being. Transportation programs, there are vans or minibuses that provide transport for older adults or the handicapped to physicians, hospital, clinics. Volunteer programs, any sort of organization that operates more efficiently and has increased sense of community importance if an efficient volunteer is developed and equipped. Program developments include advances in public wellbeing, preventive and curative medicine, health education, and medical technology have caused enormous changes in the configuration of the populace of aging populations. Conclusion Everyone of us started from being a child until we reach old age, as we grow older we become unique to other people, each of us has a different genetic make up. During the life course, the range of those persons is created by how person invested time and energy. The life time approach to the learning of aging is one way of conceptualizing many of the factors that influence how individual modify as they grow older, and how different personality show unlike patterns of change in aging. Work Cited Cockayne K. (2003). Experiencing Old Age in Ancient Rome. Sociology, Routlidge Publishing. Decalmer P. and Glandenning F. (1997) The Mistreatment of Elderly People. Sociology. Sage Publication. Sage Newbury Park, CA. Davies, J.K., Gordon M., editor (1998). Quality, Evidence, and Health Effectiveness in Health Promotion. Routledge Publishing. Gilford, D. M. (1988).The Aging Population In The Twenty-First Century. Contributor National Academy of Sciences. National Academic Press. Haber, D. (2007). Health Promotion of Aging; Practical Applications for Health Professionals. Fourth edition. Springer Publishing Company Timmreck, T.C. (2003).Planning Program Development and Evaluation. Jones and Barlett Publishers. Timiras, P.S., (2002) Physiological Basis of Aging And Geriatrics. Mac Millan Publishing. New York. Webb, R.C., (1999). Psychology of The Consumer And It’s Development .Kluwer Academic/ Plenum Publishers. New York. How to cite Eight Stages In the Development of Man, Essay examples

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Examining the Divergence of Tone in the Travel free essay sample

Human experience within nature is a broad, ever-expanding subject of study, wherein one is limited to either divulging personal experience or interpreting the validity of the experiences of others in order to gain insight. As such, nature writing takes innumerable forms, with each approaching the task of describing experience within nature in a unique way and each emphasizing a different intent. As a result, there exists a tendency to denote nature writing to an all-encompassing category and furthermore, to neglect the subtleties that serve to differentiate one nature essay from another. These nuances prove to be highly important when deciphering a writer’s tone and exposing the writer’s oftentimes overlooked intent, especially when contrasting one piece of nature writing to another, seemingly of the same topic. A shining example of this understanding can be demonstrated in an analysis of sections taken from two essays by William Bartram and Charles Waterton, respectively, which are generally sub-categorized as â€Å"nature in travel writing of two early naturalists abroad†. This description, while serving its purpose of classification, lends to the incorrect assumption that both essays convey the same intent. Through an analysis of the writers’ respective use of descriptive language, apparent appreciation of nature, and their perception of the human species’ position within nature, it will be made evident that the two essays convey contrasting perceptions of the human experience in nature. The first point of contrast will be exemplified in their divergence in appreciation of nature, whereby purpose and acquisition underlie Waterton’s appreciation, while Bartram emphasizes an appreciation of nature by virtue of its existence. Secondly, the essays diverge in tone through their use of descriptive language, which contrasts Bartram’s deep respect for nature against Waterton’s respect rooted in ulterior purpose. Finally, and arguably most importantly, the tone of the essays are most evidently divergent in their respective perceptions of the human position in nature. By deciphering the subtle tones within Bartram’s â€Å"Travels Through North South Carolina†¦Ã¢â‚¬  and Waterton’s â€Å"Wanderings in South America†¦Ã¢â‚¬  one can establish this clear distinction between two nature essays that would be otherwise grouped together. While it cannot be denied that both Bartram and Waterton demonstrate a keen admiration and appreciation of nature in all of its elements, there remains a distinct contrast between the foundations for their respective admirations. Bartram demonstrates a deep appreciation of nature by virtue of its very existence, whereas Waterton’s appreciation seems to be rooted in purpose and acquisition. Further, Bartram reveres the simplicity of natural beauty, bred by the element of surprise, in such a way that it can be seen as the basis for his adoration. Whether in his description of a sudden procession of Ephemera, an immense and innumerable onslaught of alligators at dusk, or the powerful emergence of brilliantly coloured bands of fish from the mouth of â€Å"the Crystal Bason†, Bartram’s powerful imagery serves to demonstrate the ability of the natural world to continually inspire a sense of wonder and awe in the human species. In contrast, Waterton’s appreciation for the natural world lies in the acquisition of species deemed to be of interest by â€Å"the civilized world†. In this way, Waterton’s appreciation of nature can be seen as objects of interest contributing to a greater purpose, as opposed to a singular occurrence through which the beauty is seen in the occurrence itself, separate from civilized interpretation. This is not to say that Waterton is dismissive of the natural world that he encounters, to the contrary, Waterton creates incredibly powerful imagery through his writing, of which only one who is deeply affected by his surroundings could convey. What offers such juxtaposition to Bartram’s essay then, is that almost all of Waterton’s observations of nature serve, in one way or another, his own external purposes. Upon hearing the sound of the Campanero bird, for example, Waterton expresses that he â€Å"could not resist the opportunity of acquiring the Campanero† (Waterton, p. 107). Instead of beholding the occurrence with earnest fascination, his interest is vested in an ulterior purpose, which is to acquire the bird by means of killing it for sport. The difference then, is in the respective ends to which both Bartram and Waterton aspire, which are so utterly contrasted, that they change the tone of their seemingly coinciding essays altogether. Further emphasizing the difference in tone between the two essays is each writer’s use of language as a descriptive mechanism. Whether it is his true intention or not, Bartram’s use of earnest and exploratory language reinforces in the reader a deep, and quite often neglected, respect for nature. Most evidently, this use of language is demonstrated in his observations of the movements of bands of fish with relation to â€Å"the Crystal Bason† (Bartram, 74), of which he declares â€Å"I raise my eyes with terror and astonishment; I look down at the fountain with anxiety, when behold them as it were emerging from the blue ether of another world† (75). So powerful is his genuine emotional language, that the effect of his raw appreciation simply for the occurrence itself is plainly evident. On the other side of the coin, Waterton’s often commanding and presumptuous descriptive language establishes an anthropomorphic tone throughout his essay, suggesting the superiority of man over nature and perhaps even further, a lack of respect for the natural world. This idea is best demonstrated through his encounters, not only with animals but also with his human companions, in which an attitude of superiority is prevalent, both intellectually and physically. The intellectual aspect of his implied superiority is conveyed through Waterton’s interactions with his human companions, of whom he implies to be of a lower species in his referral to them as â€Å"the Indian† or â€Å"the negro†, just as he refers to â€Å"the jaguar† or â€Å"the Cayman†, for example. (Waterton, p. 111) Waterton further infers his superiority though the use of light-hearted language where it is not warranted by the often-perilous situation. This is best emphasized in his first encounter with a jaguar, wherein he commands his companion not to shoot in self-defence and instead reasons that it is not often â€Å"that the traveller is favoured with an undisturbed sight of the jaguar† (106). This light-hearted language in the face of danger additionally serves to contrast Bartram’s description of his own reactions to similar circumstances, which is best expressed in the associative language that the two authors use in describing their confrontations with alligators. While both respectively emphasize the power of the alligators, using descriptive words such as â€Å"monsters† (Bartram, 69) and â€Å"hideous and malicious reptiles† (Waterton, 113), Waterton uses associative words like â€Å"love at first sight† (114) to describe his encounter with the caiman and â€Å"disappointment† (109) or â€Å"doubtful† (108) when explaining his failure to lure it to him. Conversely, Bartram expresses a much more plausible reaction to potential encounters with the alligators, through the use of associative words like â€Å"dreadful† or â€Å"apprehensions† (Bartram, 67) and â€Å"truly frightful† (70) when describing his actual encounters with them. The strikingly different use of language between the two writers when describing similar, perilous situations exhibits the style of writing that each has adopted; Bartram’s being more conceivable to the reader and Waterton’s taking on a more far-fetched quality. The differing styles of writing that Bartram and Waterton adhere to, also serve to exemplify their own perceptions of their position in nature. As has been acknowledged previously in this analysis, Waterton’s writing style conveys an anthropomorphic tone and continually asserts his position in nature as being based around preconceived notions about the superior ability of man over other species. Contrary to this, Bartram writing style indicates that he asserts his position in nature as it occurs, acknowledging genuine reactions and emotions and acting on them as they come to him. This idea can be exemplified not only by the description of events that occur, but also by the associated mechanisms that both writers chose to express afterthought about the associated event. In the case of Bartram’s essay, one such occurrence is in his descriptive observations of the procession of Ephemera (Mayfly) at the time of their mating. Bartram makes clear the wonder and sense of awe that these species evoke in him, upon witnessing them â€Å"particularly when they appear in the fly state† (66). It is in his additional commentary on the event, following his description of the experience itself, that Bartram infers his perception of mans position with respect to nature. Adopting a somewhat existential tone, Bartram praises the complexity of the Ephemera’s short existence, further emphasizing his admiration for the embracing of their brief period of happiness, of which he declares, â€Å"what a lesson doth it not afford us of the vanity of our own pursuits! † (66) The same indication of perceived human position in nature can also be found in Waterton’s essay, most apparently in his description of  his conquering of the caiman alligator. In describing his experience, Waterton never alludes to the caiman evoking any fear within him or taking him by surprise, but rather emphasizes the fear that he instils upon the alligator, â€Å"[b]y the time the Cayman was within two yards of me, I saw he was in a state of fear and perturbation† (Waterton, 115). B y emphasizing a complete lack of apprehension in the face of what he denotes to be a ‘‘monstrum, horrendum, informe,’ [Horrible monster, void of form’]† (114), he solidifies the inference of his own and further, man’s superiority over all other species. Waterton makes use of supplementary inserts, as means of an external aside, to further enforce his perceived position in nature. Amidst the description of his experience with the caiman, for example, Waterton references ancient Greek mythological figures to compare his experience to, describing his confrontation as potentially â€Å"more perilous than Arion’s marine morning ride† (115). In doing so, Waterton again implies man’s dominance over other species, not based on his actual experience but by referencing examples outside of his own experience. While the all-encompassing denotation of nature writing is often implied, this method neglects the importance of distinguishing the intents of the writer when describing their experiences in nature. The tone in nature writing, however, is often overlooked in favour of classifying the essay based on the topic that is being described. More often than not, taking the time to decipher the overall tone of an essay reveals that two or more seemingly similar topics can be approached from a vast field of differing intent. By analyzing the subtleties in William Bartram’s essay, â€Å"Travels Through North and South Carolina† against Charles Waterton’s essay â€Å"Wanderings in South America†¦Ã¢â‚¬  it becomes evident that the two essays, while both describing nature in travel abroad, are strikingly divergent in their respective tones. Differentiating between the tone of two or more works of nature writing serves to emphasize the error inherent in classification based merely on broad topics. This commonly overlooked error reinforces misconception about the intention of the writer’s experience in nature.

Tuesday, March 31, 2020

Santiago Old Man Sea free essay sample

A tragic hero is one that has a major flaw and for whom the audience usually feels pity, sympathy, empathy, and compassion. The tragic hero is someone great, but not perfect. They are often a noble person in terms of birth but also in terms of their character. The flaw in the character is what often leads to his/her downfall. When the hero falls, it is at least partly if not completely his own fault. On the other hand, its not because he is a bad person but because of the character flaw he has or because of plain bad luck. What happens to the hero is too harsh. The character flaw that might have caused the downfall doesnt deserve the punishment that he gets. If the hero lives then through the experience he realizes what caused his downfall and what he could have done to prevent it, so he grows and learns through the misfortune. We will write a custom essay sample on Santiago Old Man Sea or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page The classic example is Macbeth. While there were other factors contributing to his downfall, one of the main ones was his ambition to be king. That was his tragic flaw and caused him to be open to his mothers manipulation. After that, everything kind of went downhill, to understate the situation a bit There are many examples of how Santiago was tragic hero in the old man in the sea. Santiago in the old man and the sea was known as a loser he did not have any friends but he did mentor a young boy named manolin and had the worst of luck. Santiago was outlawed by manolins parent because he had the worst of luck because of this the boy could not go fishing with him because his parents thought he was too unlucky. Santiago hadn’t caught a fish in 87 days and everyone said he would never catch a fish again but Santiago didn’t believe them. Santiago decided to go out to the deep deep waters and try to fish because he wanted to get a monster marlin on the line to prove himself. When Santiago was out in the deep ocean he had hooked a marlin and was fighting the marlin for 3 days. Santiago had the struggle of when he had the marlin up beside the boat of having the marlin was too big to fit into the boat so Santiago had to pull the marlin beside the boat until he got to shore. Unfortunately when Santiago was close to shore a group of sharks ate the marlin with all that was left of the marlin was its head. Santiago was a very unlucky being in the old man and the sea. In the beginning of the novel, he had not caught a fish for 84 days. He was thought to be the most unlucky type of luck. This is a prime example of how Santiago was a tragic hero is the book the old man and the sea.

Saturday, March 7, 2020

Hill House essays

Hill House essays Ever do something stupid to impress someone? Throughout a persons life they will do something very ignorant or say something very stupid hundreds of times. Most of the time it is because they are trying to impress somebody or change their ways to make someone or others accept them. The story Haunting of Hill House has great examples of people changing just to fit in. The author Shirley Jackson, who died in 1965, was one of the most brilliant writers of her time. She was widely acclaimed for her hair-raising stories and novels of the supernatural. Although the Haunting of Hill House fits this description perfectly with its eerie description of supernatural tales of the happenings of Hill House; there is a more to it than hauntings. The story starts out with three guests being invited to the house to monitor any out of the ordinary occurrences in Hill House. Throughout the story the guests experience some ghostly moments. However during this one of the guest named Eleanor cha nges her ways to fit in with the guests. Her actions show that societys views on a person can lead that person to things they would never have thought of. One example would be when Eleanor told lies about herself and her past. Another example would be when Eleanor went around the house alone having no fear. Finally Eleanor became open and spoke out what was on her mind. An example of societys views on a person leading them to things they never thought of was when Eleanor became a liar and lied about her past. Today a lot of people are pressured so much by society to be a certain way they will lie about themselves to fit in with those certain people. In the story Eleanor feels that she does not fit in with the group of people who are staying at Hill House. She is a person with a lack of confidence so she feels she has to lie to feel accepted. Theodora came through the bathroom door into Eleanor...

Thursday, February 20, 2020

Tequila, Vodka, Rum and Cordials Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Tequila, Vodka, Rum and Cordials - Assignment Example The paper tells that Spirits and Wine remain much more important on the dollar share basis. For the past five years, the consumption of spirits and wine has been growing significantly while the rate of beer consumption has been on the decrease. Through the same trend, spirit brands of Tequila, Vodka, Rum, and Cordials have grown significantly in their popularity and sales. Each of these spirit brands has its unique history, Tequila, Vodka, Rum, and Cordials are subject to produce through similar methods. Variations may only occur in the raw materials and the skills employed in creating these portables, but the basic stages involved in their production of all these spirits brands follow the same methods of production. Tequila, Vodka, Rum and Cordial's spirit brands have their distinctive character, distinctive aroma, and distinctive flavors. Vodka has a distinctive aroma, taste, and character that make it unique and original in the market. Rum, is popular in South America is produced through distillation from fermented molasses or sugarcane with its light flavor making it a unique drink in the market. Tequila gets its popularity from the flavors it has and being a drink of Mexican origin adds to its popularity. Cordials enjoy its popularity from its sweet taste with flavors of various botanicals. Since each of these spirits has their unique flavors and history, it gets the attention of the consumers and thus contributing to their growth in the market.